Tuesday, February 18, 2020
The rule in Salomon v Salomon & Co  AC 22 has been described as one of the corner stones of English Company Law - Essay Example This article will examine the rationale of the decision and its impacts towards the development of company law. The status of limited liability went to specific companies before 1825 through the provisions of express available in the Royal Charter regarding Incorporation. Section 2 of the Bubble Act of 1825 governed the first efforts in officially, introducing the concept of limited liability to the English laws. The section provided that the shareholders of a particular corporation would personally be liable in their own persons as well as their property to that extent as well as subject to the regulations and limitations as his magnificence. Although there was no opposition from the Crown to the idea of legal personality, public pressure turned in opposing any extension of legal personality that later became troubled with the stance of creditors. This provoked public suspicions because of the expectation that the Bubble Act would lead to an increase in the number of licensed companies with limited liability. This therefore was the reason for the withholding of the doctrine of limited liabil ity from Company Act in 1844 (Ferran 1999). However, public opinion moved in the reverse direction in favour of the principle of limited liability. In the 1850s, the doctrine acquired recognition in the law. In the year 1852, the Court of Exchequer chamber in the case of Hallet versus Dowdall accredited the legality of the clause of limited liability of 1952. This in turn prompted the parliament to pass the Limited Liability Act in 1855 as well as more contemporary act of Joint Stock Companies of 1856. Consequently, this led to the enactment of the Companies Act in 1862, which formed the foundation for the delivery of the rule in Salomon. The intention of the House of Lords in the Salomon rule was to send a clear message to the members of the public
Monday, February 3, 2020
Cold Weather - Essay Example Many people believe that flu and colds are caused by cold weather. To some extent, this notion is true. In essence, flu and colds are caused by viruses. However, people tend to be as close to each other as possible during cold seasons in an effort to keep warm. Getting too close to an individual with a cold or flu elevates your chances of getting the flu. In this viewpoint, cold weather contributes to the spread of colds and flu. In the contemporary world, people are increasingly being affected by lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and obesity due to sedentary lifestyles. One of the ways that such diseases could be avoided is through regular exercises and adopting healthier eating habits. During winter, people spend most of their time indoors and hence have little time to exercise outside their houses. Additionally, access to healthy foods is restricted during winter. For instance, it is difficult for an individual to walk to a supermarket selling fresh vegetables during cold seasons when fast foods can be brought into the house. In this regard, cold weather promotes unhealthy eating habits. People also react differently to changing climatic conditions. A switch from warm weather to winter could have psychological effects on individuals. During cold seasons, people are less likely to socialize and hence less likely to share their feelings and troubles with other individuals. Stress levels are more likely to be elevated when an individual is isolated from friends and family.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
The View That Transnational Corporations Are Footloose Economics Essay Introduction For decades, business has existed in almost every country around the world; regardless of what industries those businesses belong to. Whether it is agriculture, finance, food and beverage, service, etc., it all started long before modern businesses were established. As of today, we can see that various corporations exist in every country around the world, regardless of name, type and the size of it. There are about 23,343,821 corporations in the US alone (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002), which still is where the majority of companies come from. These corporations all adopt different structures, all the more complex when they expand their operations to foreign countries. According to Dicken (2007), there are 4 types of TNC organisations which are Multinational, International, Global and Integrated Network. Each type serves different functions for the company; so depending on the businesses the company is involved, the organisation culture and the decision making of top management, companies adopt the one type that suits them the best. Examples of TNC organisations are such as Microsoft, Toyota and Samsung. These TNCs started off as small organisations within their own domestic countries and have been very successful domestically. Once they dominated their domestic markets, market share was no longer sufficient to satisfy their growing desire for increase market share and profits. This resulted in them moving their businesses into foreign markets and expanded their business scope globally, which began with exports and then FDI as they could exploit differences in costs in those countries. We can now see that these TNCs exist not only in a few countries but some even have developed to numerous countries and markets. These transnational corporations are deemed as companies that have supremacy to coordinate and control operations in more than one country, even if it does not own them (Dicken, 2007). According to BBC, TNCs are massive firms that conduct their businesses in several countries and some are wealthier compa red to less developed countries. (http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/find_out/guides/world/trade/newsid_3099000/3099680.stm) There is an ongoing debate on the issue of whether TNCs are actually that powerful to be considered footloose. Footloose is defined as mobility of companies moving in and out of countries if they find it attractive in terms of market or resources opportunities. Market opportunities are such as consumers, governments regulations, number of competitors, etc. Resource opportunities on the other hand, are like labour costs, raw materials availability and technology accessibility. In this task, a detailed assessment on TNCs and their operations will be done to help determine the fact on whether TNCs are footloose or not. Findings TNCs are Footloose Profits Labour costs TNCs open up operations in foreign countries according to geographic matters which benefits to them. In a certain extent to this, I agree that TNCs are footloose. Based on the example of NestlÃ ©, we can assume that TNCs are footloose. NestlÃ © was established in Switzerland, a small country where market size is not as large as in US or UK. Today, NestlÃ © is one of the leading food and beverage manufacturers in the world (Food Engineering Magazine, 2010). After 5 months of its establishment, it started manufacturing outside of Switzerland. It did not export its products to other countries because of its companys mentality to always produce locally rather than exporting. Thus, it conducted FDI and built manufacturing plants in foreign countries such as US (Appendix 1). As TNCs are capitalist where profit is key for them (Dicken, 2007), TNCs like NestlÃ © expanded globally to increase profits, market share and brand equity. Besides market opportunities, NestlÃ © also built a plan t in China to take opportunities on its low labour costs in 2007 (Appendix 2). Both points to two broad categories of motivation for companies to engage in transactional operations which are market and asset orientated (Dicken, 2007). Market factors are size, structure and accessibility (Dicken, 2007). Asset factors point to knowledge and skill, wage costs, labour productivity, labour controllability and labour mentality (Dicken, 2007). This applies to NestlÃ © due to its company culture, where it hails from Switzerland. Its history points to NestlÃ © utilising its strong brand equity and financial structure to negotiate its way into foreign countries (NestlÃ ©, 2010), also by offering improvements to infrastructure and job opportunities to the locals. According to IMF (2001), with entrance of TNCs into countries, this will create jobs for unskilled workers as they have difficulty in searching jobs, moving their social class from lower class to middle class. Internal competences Hymer (1960) stated that domestic companies always had advantage over foreign firms as they understood the environment better; but foreign companies could out-compete domestic companies based on firm-specific assets such as firm size, economies of scale, etc (Dicken, 2007). Companies like HSBC started out domestically but soon built up its brand name globally which was used as an advantage to move into countries and compete with their domestic firms. It currently operates in more than 60 countries and is one of the leading banks in the world (Appendix 3). Dunning (1980) suggested that firms like HSBC engaged in transactional production was due to it having ownership-specific advantages not possessed by competitors such as knowledge, technology, etc., where it internalised these advantages and keeping it secret from competitors; also because of location-specific factors, some of these advantages has to be used in certain locations (Dicken, 2007), for example, they have strong human re sources (HSBC Finance, 2009) and can use it to train the labour from China about their operations, transferring knowledge as well as saving labour costs simultaneously. This benefits both HSBC and China as the company gains in terms of cost saving while China earns new knowledge regarding how to conduct banking and utilise it for their domestic banks later. Access to markets WTO is one of the main reasons why TNCs are considered as footloose, such as the deregulation of the financial services in 2001. This is because WTO discovered the benefits outweighed the risk of doing so. By allowing foreign banks to enter domestic markets, it could help strengthen the financial systems in those developing countries, such as by improving the quality and efficiency of financial services. Although domestic banks suffer through the sudden increase of competition, customers gain as banks reduce interest rates and are also provide a wider range of services to customers. These benefits however depended on how it was timed with other financial reformations such as domestic financial deregulation and capital account liberalisation. In the case of the EU, internationalisation can actually support domestic deregulation (Appendix 4). Nevertheless, internationalisation is not fully dependant on other financial reformations; it could still help in stabilising capital flows as we ll as the financial sector of a country. Lastly, governments still need to set up regulations for foreign banks although the industry was deregulated, as this could control their operations to a certain extent. Thus, with all these, the phenomenon of international banks such as HSBC entering different foreign market has been gradually increasing, as long the regulations set for them are complied. Generally, TNCs help foreign countries gain job opportunities and improve growth for industries. For example, the banking industries in less developed countries like Vietnam are getting more competent due to threat of foreign banks entering the country (IFC, 2009). Both domestic banks and government will benefit from this as banks have to improve their services while governments earn the taxes paid by TNCs to boost growth of the country (John Madeley, 2003). Besides liberalisation increasing competition between domestic and foreign firms, competition between governments exists as well. Certain countries around the world loosened their regulations in order to attract foreign investments into the countries (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD, 2008). These countries are mainly developing countries as they require the economy boosts. This is done by lowering tax rates as incentives for TNCs to enter. As governments compete, this inadvertently increases TNCs footloose cause they have choices of entering and exiting countries that are desperately fighting over their entrance. TNCs are NOT Footloose Costs Some empirical studies has classified TNCs are more footloose compared to domestic companies, meaning that they are more prone to leaving an industry compared to a domestic firms of the same size. (GÃ ¶rg and Strobl, 2003; Bernard and SjÃ ¶holm, 2003; and Van Beveren, 2007) The exit process is slowed down though, by TNCs abundance in sources of income. Added by the fact that TNCs are less knowledgeable about the business environment and have to encounter unexpected barriers, they can afford to make losses initially and try to claw back those losses. Unless the losses are too much and hard to bear; only then these TNCs decide to leave the country. Therefore, it is debatable that TNCs are not as footloose as people think they are. Government Technology
Saturday, January 18, 2020
What are product, delivery process and services? Indentify and explain one definition that you will be using for this assignment. The company my chose is Burger King. Definition of product: A product is tangible with a physical form. Its design is to fit into a specific purpose defined by the customer of a target market. It is produced through a manufacturing process with specification. The customers will evaluate productÃ¢â¬â¢s performance against its price while using it. A product has to be designed for use safely and environment friendly, as often one of the guiding principle. For example, the Burger KingÃ¢â¬â¢s product, and some of history. When the predecessor of international fast food restaurant chain Burger King (BK) first opened in 1953, its menu predominantly consisted of hamburgers, French fries, soft drinks, milkshakes, and desserts. After being acquired by its Miami, Florida franchisees and renamed in 1954, BK began expanding its menu by adding the Whopper sandwich in 1957, and has since added non-beef items such as chicken, fish, and vegetarian offerings, including salads and meatless sandwiches. Other additions include a breakfast menu and beverages such as Icees, juices, and bottled waters. As the company expanded both inside and outside the United States, it introduced localized versions of its products that conform to regional tastes and cultural or religious beliefs. To generate additional sales, BK occasionally introduces limited-time offers of special versions of its products, or brings out completely new products intended for either long- or short-term sales. Burger king, in general, the main business is fast food, and taste delicious, can satisfy the needs of the customers. (Burger King Product, 2013) Delivery Process The delivery process usually involves six factors: The accountable product/service provider and his product/service suppliers (e. g. the people) Equipment used to provide the product/service (e. g. vehicles, cash registers, technical systems, computer systems) The physical facilities (e. g. buildings, parking, waiting rooms) The requesting product/service consumer Other customers at the delivery location Customer contact The service encounter is defined as all activities involved in the service delivery process. Some service managers use the term Ã¢â¬Å"moment of truthÃ¢â¬ to indicate that defining point in a specific service encounter where interactions are most intense. Service is through a delivery process meeting and exceeding customerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations. It consists of many back Ã¢â¬â and front-stage activities where the customer interacts directly or indirectly with the service organization. The purpose of the interaction is To satisfy specific needs and wants of the customer, In a way that meets the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations and gives value to him/her. Each customer contact is called a moment of truth. Customer is either satisfy or dissatisfy them when you contact them. For example, a massage shop provide massage services. The services they provide is intangible, and can help the customers to relax. In Burger King, there is also some services provided. For example, when customers order at the counter, the staff will serve the customers by providing them ordering services. When the food is not ready, the customers will take a queue number and take a seat first. When the food is ready, the staff will deliver the food to their table. This is also another services. Thus in Burger King, although they are selling products, but they also provide certain services to add value to customers. 1. 2 Explain and illustrate, in the quality system, the processes of inspection and assurance. Quality assurance inspection is defined as the assessment of characteristics with respect to defined standards in order to assure quality to the customers for any industry of business. Any quality monitoring inspection process consists of the following steps Deciding the sample size Ã¢â¬â The sample size for quality inspection is decided based on the total lot size to be inspected and the criticality of the characteristics involved. International standards such as ISO 2859 help the inspector to decide the right sample size for the inspection. Selection of samples Ã¢â¬â Once the sample size is decided, the next step is in the inspection process is selection of the samples. Based on this sample, a decision needs to be taken on the entire lot so it should be a true representative of the lot. To ensure this, the samples should be selected randomly. Measuring or Testing Ã¢â¬â Once the samples have been selected randomly, these need to be measured and tested. Various standards are available which can be used depending upon the characteristics to be measured or tested. Sometimes the customers may ask for the tests as per their procedures, which may be more stringent than the standards adopted by the organization. However, these terms and conditions need to be agreed upon before entering into a contract with the customer. Examining Ã¢â¬â Some characteristics only need to be visually examined or inspected. These characteristics may look easy but these are the ones, which may become a point of controversy, since these are subjective in nature. For e. g. shade of the color. Again standards come to an inspectors rescue at this time. Moreover, measurement system analysis helps in removing any doubts on measurement, testing or examining. Comparing with specifications Ã¢â¬â The results of measurement, test results, results of visual examination need to be then compared with the agreed specifications to decide if the goods or the services meets them the very purpose of a QA inspection. If the samples tested meet the specifications, the entire lot is accepted, otherwise it is rejected. Deciding on subsequent action Ã¢â¬â Based on the quality inspection results and the comparison of the same with the specifications a decision on a lot is taken. The important point to be noted here is the kind of action initiated if the lot does not meet the specifications. If the manufacturer takes action only to dispose off the defect then the defect may reoccur in the next lot too. All this results in wastage of various resources. The right approach in such cases is to find the real reason or the root cause of the defect and then take corrective and preventive action to eliminate these causes and hence assure good quality.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Presents, the new coevals has begun to develop an involvement in assorted computing machine bet oning activities. It is likely that computing machine games provide satisfaction for the demands, such as to let go of emphasis and as a acquisition procedure tool. Therefore, both kids and grownups are really attracted and addicted to these activities. It is really common for grownups to acquire involved in these computing machine games because drama is a natural manner to larn as it is joyful and can supply the chances to unconsciously incorporate thoughts ( Eow, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & A ; Roselan Baki, 2009 ) . In add-on, great entree to cyberspace has besides increased these old ages. Most households are able to afford computing machine and internet entree at place. Besides, picture games had besides increased to go one of kids and adolescence Ã¢â¬Ës front-runner, even in grownups every bit good. The gross revenues of video games in the United States have grown systematic ally between $ 7 billion and $ 7.5 billion in 1999. On the other manus, the worldwide gross revenues had besides increased to $ 20 billion ( Gentile, Lynch, Linder & A ; Walsh, 2004 ) . Games have ever been a favorite interest for everyone despite their age and gender. But, how is game defined? Harmonizing to Huizinga ( as cited in Smed & A ; Hakonen, 2003 ) , he defined drama as an activity which returns within certain bounds of clip and infinite, in a seeable order, harmonizing to regulations freely accepted, and outside the domain of necessity or material public-service corporation. In add-on, game is defined as an cosmopolitan signifier of diversion which includes any activity of amusement and organize a competition or competition fortunes. A game is comprised of three constituents: the willingness of participants to take part in the game to seek for amusement, regulations that provide bounds for the game, and ends which initiate struggles and competition among the participants. So, computing machine games can be defined as a set of activities that involves one or more participants, with ends, restraints and effects. Harmonizing to Crawford ( as cited in Hasiah Mohamed Omar, Nora Yanti Che Jan & A ; Nik Marsyahariani Nik Daud, 2010 ) , all games are comprised of four common factors: representation, interaction, struggle and safety. It is accomplished with the assistance of a computing machine plan, in which the computing machine coordinates the game procedure, exemplify the state of affairs and take part as a participant. There are assorted types of computing machine games designed to suit different participants Ã¢â¬Ë demands and demands, for case, function playing game, educational game, athletics game and amusement game. World of Warcrafts ( WOW ) is the most popular Ã¢â¬Å" massively multiplayer on-line role-playing games Ã¢â¬ ( MMORPGs ) worldwide, with transcending 9 million endorsers from North America and Europe, Australia, New Zealand, China, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau, based on the Blizzard Ã¢â¬Ës official web site. Besides, it is besides the first on-line game to make the gross revenues of over $ 100 million worldwide in the first twelvemonth of production, and besides known as the best-selling Personal computer game in 2005 and 2006 ( Chen & A ; Chang, 2008 ) . Games may be harmful to a individual Ã¢â¬Ës wellness, but it may besides lend to an of import function in instruction. It benefits users in larning procedure such as bettering their logical and critical thought and job resolution accomplishments. Besides, it besides assists users in bettering their physiological reactions and hand-eye coordination. Critical thought is acquiring more and more of import as a cognitive undertaking on present yearss. Persons today frequently encountered metric tons of jobs and have an increasing figure of of import determinations to do, which affects themselves and the society. The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking defined critical thought as the intellectually disciplined procedure of actively and skillfully gestating, using, analysing, synthesising, and measuring information gathered from observation, experience, contemplation, concluding, or communicating, as a usher to belief and action. There are two factors in critical thought: a set of information, belief generating and processing accomplishments ; and the wont of utilizing those accomplishments to steer action ( Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009 ; Renaud & A ; Murray, 2008 ) . Critical thought is non cosmopolitan as persons have undisciplined and irrational idea. However, it is seen as a self-guided and self-restraining thought in which concluding frequently occurs at the highest degree. Persons with critical thought are able to utilize their rational tools to believe rationally and moderately by forming and analysing ideas in order to do determinations that affect their lives, every bit good as to better their thought and concluding accomplishments ( Schafersman, 1991 ) . Problem Statement In Malaysia, 75.8 % of signifier one pupils in Kuala Lumpur were gamers, whereas the other 24.2 % were non-gamers. It is so reported that out of the 138 male childs being surveyed, 126 ( 91.3 % ) of them were gamers. On the other manus, 53 out of 98 ( 54.1 % ) miss being surveyed were besides gamers. This research showed that male childs have a higher per centum to be gamers than misss. Computer games do non merely act as the involvement among adolescence, it besides acted as a acquisition tool where brainstorming and critical thought develops. Therefore, it is non surprising that the signifier one pupils are so indulged in it ( Eow, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & A ; Roselan Baki, 2009 ) . In a study on Institute of Higher Learning ( IHL ) pupils Ã¢â¬Ë exposure to computing machine games in Malaysia, it is reported that 36.8 % of pupils were exposed to computing machine games at the age of 10 to 12, 21.1 % at the age of 7 to 9, and 7 % at the age of 16 to 18. About 80 % preferred to play card and arcade games, followed by action games ( 69.2 % ) , function playing games ( 63.1 % ) , puzzle games ( 50.8 % ) , scheme games ( 26.2 % ) and sport games ( 21.5 % ) . This statistics revealed that the pupils at IHL have a penchant for games that enhance their high-order thought accomplishments ( Hasiah Mohamed Omar, Nora Yanti Che Jan & A ; Nik Marsyahariani Nik Daud, 2010 ) . Excessive exposure to computing machine games can be risky as it may impact wellness and even take to decease. In Beijing, a adult male in his mid-thirtiess was found abruptly after an inordinate three-day gambling indulgence in 2007. Deaths by bet oning have besides been reported in Hong Kong, a 28-year-old adult male and a 17-year-old male child died within a twelvemonth of each other while playing the first-person taw game. In the U.S, a adult male died a hebdomad after he played Nintendo. On the other manus, in South Korea, a adult male died four yearss subsequently after exposure to inordinate on-line games. Harmonizing to Dr. Maressa Orzack ( as cited in Lee, 2009 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" our society is going more computing machine dependant non merely for information, but besides for merriment and amusement, this tendency is a possible job impacting all ages, get downing with computing machine games for childs. Ã¢â¬ Numerous surveies had revealed a consistent negative correlativity between sums of picture games played and school public presentation of kids, adolescence, and college pupils. Harmonizing to the informations, adolescence and college pupils who spent more clip on games are more likely to hold poorer classs in categories, compared to non-gamers. Besides, the content of games besides played an of import function. Based on recent analyses, approximately 89 % of games contain some violent content in which half of the games presented heavy force. Spending excessively much clip on these force games can bring forth strong negative effects on the gamer. For case, additions aggressive behaviors, ideas and emotions ; desensitisation to real-life force, increases physiological rousing and decreases societal behavior ( Gentile, Lynch, Linder & A ; Walsh, 2004 ) . The effects are proven by informations collected from functional magnetic resonance imagination scan ( functional magnetic resonance i maging ) . It showed that there is activation in the amygdaloid nucleus when the adolescents are playing games, but less activation in the concentration portion of the encephalon ( Carney, 2008 ) . Other than that, video games can besides do several other effects such as fleshiness in kids, societal isolation and physiological wellness jobs. Obesity is hazardous because it affects one Ã¢â¬Ës wellness to the extreme. When kids spend most of their clip sitting and bet oning, they do non even bother to acquire up or hold a walk outside. Hence, opportunities of acquiring corpulence are ineluctable if they do non do any alterations with their lives. In the same state of affairs, the longer the clip they caught up in gambling activities, the more opportunities of them to lose socialisation accomplishments or connexion with the outside universe. Face-to face socialisation will be reduced since they can hold interaction with others through the Internet. Therefore, these kids will bit by bit go socially stray someday. Furthermore, physiological jobs such as GI jobs, sickness and concerns, attending jobs such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) , addition in both emoti onal and behavioral upset symptoms, diminutions in verbal memory public presentation, and decreased sum of slumber ( AddictionBlog.org, 2010 ; Cultrona, 2010 ) . Frand ( as cited in Roselan Baki, Eow, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & A ; Mohd. Sahandri Gani Hamzah, 2008 ) discovered that computing machine games and cyberspace are really of import to the younger coevals as they depended and remain connected with it most of their clip. However, other research workers claimed that picture games are no longer a interest for adolescence as it works as a larning tool in which it enhances computing machine literacy, ocular attending, job resolution and reaction clip. In add-on, Gee ( as cited in Roselan Baki, Eow, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & A ; Mohd. Sahandri Gani Hamzah, 2008 ) mentioned that video game can be a learning tool integrated into schoolroom acquisition since kids today frequently play games. Harmonizing to him, Ã¢â¬Å" when childs play videogames they experience a much more powerful signifier of larning than when they are in the schoolroom Ã¢â¬ . Besides, the benefits that one could obtain from computing machine games include chance for practical socialization ; larning about other participants Ã¢â¬Ë civilizations and life styles ; prosecute in high-order thought accomplishment ; gathers general cognition ; and even increasing the linguistic communication larning chance. Therefore, it is suggested that instructors in school should admit the benefits of games on cognitive development of the pupils by organizing learning methods that helps to reassign the accomplishments and schemes to the pupils ( Roselan Baki, Eow, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & A ; Mohd. Sahandri Gani Hamzah, 2008 ) . Conceptual Model Gender *Independent Variable* Male Female Critical Thinking Skills *Dependent Variable* Duration of games played per twenty-four hours *Independent Variable* Type of Games *Independent Variable* Strategy Game 1. & lt ; 2 hours Arcade Game 2. 3 Ã¢â¬â 6 hours Card and Board Game 3. 7 Ã¢â¬â 10 hours Shooting Game 4. 11 Ã¢â¬â 13 hours Word and Puzzle Game 5. & gt ; 14 hours Role-Playing Game The chief model of this research is focused on how computing machine games can be of import determiners of the development of critical thought accomplishments in adolescence. Three variables: gender, type of games and continuance of games played per twenty-four hours will be examined and they act as an independent variable in this research. The type of games will be categorized into six classs such as scheme, arcade, card and board, word and mystifier, shot, and role-playing games. Each of these independent variables will be surveyed whether it plays a function in developing or bettering critical thought accomplishments in adolescence. Theoretical Model John Dewey Ã¢â¬Ës Definition of Critical Thinking Harmonizing to John Dewey, critical thought is viewed as Ã¢â¬Ëreflective thought Ã¢â¬Ë and it is defined as an Ã¢â¬Å" active, relentless, and careful consideration of a belief or supposed signifier of cognition in the visible radiation of the evidences which support it and the farther decisions to which it tends ( as cited in Jaimes, 2005 ) . Ã¢â¬ Robert Ennis Ã¢â¬Ës Definition of Critical Thinking A widely used definition of critical thought was developed by Robert Ennis whom so defined critical thought as Ã¢â¬Å" sensible, brooding thought that is focused on make up one's minding what to believe or make ( Fisher, 2001 ) . Ã¢â¬ Moore and Parker Ã¢â¬Ës Definition of Critical Thinking Harmonizing to Moore and Parker, critical thought is defined as Ã¢â¬Å" the careful, calculated finding of whether we should accept, reject, or suspend judgement about a claim, and the grade of assurance with which we accept or reject it ( The Critical Thinking Co Staff, 2005 ) . Ã¢â¬ Mathew Lipman Ã¢â¬Ës Definition of Critical Thinking In Lipman Ã¢â¬Ës position, critical thought is seen as a more complex procedure than ordinary thought. Lipman defines critical thought as a adept and responsible idea that helps to build better judgemental accomplishments. Harmonizing to Lipman, critical thought accomplishments are applied in a given context in order to assist separate between the most relevant and less relevant information received. Therefore, critical thought represents a tool for countering sentiments ( noncritical thought ) and thoughtless behavior. Apart from that, Lipman argues that critical thought Ã¢â¬Å" protects us from being coerced or brainwashed into believing what others want us to believe without holding the chance to ask for ourselves. Ã¢â¬ ( Murchu & A ; Muirhead, 2005 ; Daniel, Splitter, Slade, Lafortune, Pallascio & A ; Mongeau, 2004 ) . Critical thought is thought to develop based on four classs: conceptualization, concluding, generalization and research. In Lipman Ã¢â¬Ës point of view, critical thought develops based on three standards: ( 1 ) Use of peculiar standards, whereby a individual who uses peculiar standards of his or her ain critical thought accomplishments to measure the footings of statements ; ( 2 ) Self-correction, in the sense that persons are capable of transporting out an active geographic expedition for the mistake they make with the aid of self-correction in their head ; ( 3 ) Sensitivity to context, in which the flexible ideas helps persons to place assorted applications of regulations and rules for different state of affairss ( Daniel, Splitter, Slade, Lafortune, Pallascio & A ; Mongeau, 2004 ) . Edward Glaser Ã¢â¬Ës Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thought was defined by Edward Glaser in 1941 as the ability to believe critically which involves three constituents: ( 1 ) an attitude of being disposed to see in a thoughtful manner the jobs and topics that come within the scope of one Ã¢â¬Ës experience, ( 2 ) holding the cognition of the methods for logical enquiry and logical thinking, and ( 3 ) the accomplishments required in using those methods. Harmonizing to Glaser, critical thought is a utile cognitive tool with a scope of abilities such as to acknowledge jobs, to happen solutions for the jobs, to garner information, to acknowledge the unexpressed premises, to grok and utilize linguistic communication with truth, to construe informations, to measure grounds, to measure statements, to acknowledge logical relationships between propositions, to pull and prove decisions, to retrace forms of beliefs, and to render opinions ( Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009 ; Fisher, 2001 ) . Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy of Learning Domains The well known Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy was originally formulated by Benjamin Bloom in 1956. This theoretical account was chiefly created for educational intents in developing critical thought accomplishments in pupils. It serves as a checklist that provides construction for planning, planing, measuring and measuring preparation and larning effectivity. There were three chief spheres identified: cognitive, affectional, and psychomotor. The cognitive sphere is comprised of six degrees which were organized from the simplest to the most complex: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation ( Big Dog & A ; Little Dog Ã¢â¬Ës Performance Juxtaposition, 2009 ; BusinessBalls.com, 2009 ; Bellis, 2010 ) . Knowledge refers to the retrieval of informations or antecedently learned information such as the acknowledgment of specific facts to finish theories. Although it is the start for higher degree of believing development, nevertheless, it is besides the lowest degree of larning results in the sphere. Comprehension, on the other manus, refers to the ability to grok, construe, and understand the significance of information antecedently learned. If an person can grok rules and theories, it so contributes to future job work outing or determination devising in the work topographic point. It represents the lowest degree of understanding in the hierarchy. Application is defined as the usage of erudite stuff in a novel and concrete state of affairs. In other words, it involves choice and interlingual rendition of constructs, rules and theories into work outing a undertaking or job. It therefore requires a higher degree of understanding in this degree ( Hammond, 2007 ) . Analysis refers to the ability to acknowledge and separate stuffs learned into constituent parts, analyze the relationships between parts and recognize the organisation rules involved. It is in this degree that critical thought and job work outing gets involved. Besides, an apprehension of both content and structural signifier of stuff are besides involved. As for the degree of synthesis, it is the ability to organize a new construction ( i.e. , program, proposal ) from several little constituent parts, such as uniting thoughts. Emphasis on the preparation of new constructions is seen as the larning results in synthesis. Evaluation refers to the opinions made about the stuffs Ã¢â¬Ë value for a given intent. The acquisition results are the highest among the hierarchy because they comprised of elements from all of the other degrees in the taxonomy. Besides, it besides contains witting value opinions based on clearly defined standards ( Huitt, 2009 ; Instructional Design Knowledge Bas e, n.d ) . However, Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës taxonomy has been criticized by professional critics. They commented that this hierarchy merely focuses on the idea processes itself and non sing how these procedures may work otherwise on several different informations or state of affairss. They besides mentioned that the knowledge-level of thought can non be assumed as less demanding than application-level thought ( Harmon & A ; Jones, 2005 ) . On the other manus, Marzano pointed out that the construction of the taxonomy traveling from simplest degree of cognition to hard degree of rating has no supports from research surveies ( Intel Education, n.d. ) . Core Critical Thinking Skills ( Peter A. Facione ) Peter Facione conducted a Delphi undertaking with a group of critical thought experts and identified the nucleus elements of critical thought, known as the nucleus critical thought accomplishments. Harmonizing to the panel of experts, the nucleus of critical thought accomplishments can be divided into six cognitive accomplishments: reading, analysis, rating, illation, account, and self-regulation. Based on the experts Ã¢â¬Ë consensus statements, reading is defined as the ability Ã¢â¬Å" to grok and show the significance or significance of a broad assortment of experiences, state of affairss, informations, events, judgements, conventions, beliefs, regulations, processs, or standards. Ã¢â¬ The sub-skills include classification, decrypting significance, and clear uping significance. Analysis, on the other manus, is Ã¢â¬Å" to place intended and existent illative relationships among statements, inquiries, constructs, descriptions, or other signifiers of representation that is intend ed to show belief, opinion, experiences, grounds, information, or sentiments. Ã¢â¬ The sub-skills include scrutiny of thoughts, sensing of statements, and analysis of statements ( Facione, 1990 ) . The 3rd accomplishment, rating, is Ã¢â¬Å" to measure the credibleness of statements or other representations which are histories or descriptions of a individual Ã¢â¬Ës perceptual experience, experience, state of affairs, opinion, belief, or sentiment ; and to measure the logical strength of the existent or intended illative relationships among statements, descriptions, inquiries or other signifiers of representation. Ã¢â¬ It includes the sub-skills of measuring claims and measuring statements. Inference is defined as the accomplishments Ã¢â¬Å" to place and procure elements needed to pull sensible decisions ; to organize speculations and hypotheses ; to see relevant information and to evoke the effects fluxing from informations, statements, rules, grounds, opinions, beliefs, sentiments, constructs, descriptions, inquiries, or other signifiers of representation. Ã¢â¬ The sub-skills include questioning grounds, speculating options, and pulling decisions. Explanation refers to the ability Ã¢â¬Å" to province the consequences of one Ã¢â¬Ës logical thinking ; to warrant that concluding in footings of the evidentiary, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, and contextual considerations upon which 1 Ã¢â¬Ës consequences were based ; and to show one Ã¢â¬Ës logical thinking in the signifier of telling statements. Ã¢â¬ Sub-skills of account include description of consequences, warranting processs, and showing statements. The last accomplishments which is known as self-regulation, is besides the most singular accomplishments among all six accomplishments. Experts define it as Ã¢â¬Å" self-consciously to supervise one Ã¢â¬Ës cognitive activities, the elements used in those activities, and the consequences educed, peculiarly by using accomplishments in analysis, and rating to one Ã¢â¬Ës ain illative opinions with a position toward oppugning, corroborating, proof, or rectifying either one Ã¢â¬Ës concluding or one Ã¢â¬Ës con sequences. Ã¢â¬ The sub-skills include the introspection and self-correction ( Facione, 2010 ) . A Stage Theory of Critical Thinking ( Linda Elder with Richard Paul ) A phase theory of critical thought development was originally developed by Linda Elder with Richard Paul ( Gakushuu, 2010 ) . Six phases were involved in this theory: 1 ) the unthinking mind, 2 ) the challenged mind, 3 ) the beginning mind, 4 ) the practicing mind, 5 ) the advanced mind, and 6 ) the maestro mind. In phase one, unthinking minds fail to detect the important jobs existed in their thought, such as doing premises, organizing constructs and sentiments, and pulling illations. In other words, they are incognizant of the lucidity, truth and relevancy of their ideas. Unreflective minds are deficiency of the accomplishments and cognition to measure their thought and better it. In add-on, self-monitoring idea is unequal which makes them unable to recognize their prejudice belief. In phase two, the challenged mind becomes cognizant of the jobs in believing and may try to better and develop consciousness of the appraisals of believing even though they have limited accomplishments in thought. Besides, their deceptive ideas can lead on them to believe that they have better thought accomplishments. Therefore, it leads them to extinguish other jobs in their thought imperceptibly ( Cournoyer, 2008 ; Worldwide Centre for Organisational Development, 2008 ) . In phase three, the beginning mind starts to understand the importance of egoistic function in believing. They have sufficient believing ability to assist them self-monitor their ideas so that they can place bias and biased beliefs. Practicing minds in phase four acknowledge the necessity to execute regular systematic pattern in believing. They besides become more knowing of the demands for regularly monitoring and measuring their ideas. In add-on, they frequently monitor their egoistic thought actively ( Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009 ) . In phase five, advanced minds have developed apprehensions of jobs at deeper degrees of ideas. However, they are non ready yet to hold consistent high degree believing. They besides have important penetrations into the function of egoistic ideas and the control over the ideas. In phase five, maestro minds exhibit highest degrees of critical thought and continual betterment of their ideas. They develop consistent self-monitoring ideas, and are able to pull off the strengths and failings of their ideas ( Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009 ; Worldwide Centre for Organisational Development, 2008 ) . The Elementss of Thought ( Richard Paul ) Richard Paul formulated this theoretical account by placing the eight elements as the basic edifice blocks of productive thought. It is composed of eight elements including intent, inquiry at issue, point of position, premises, information, constructs, reading and illation, deductions and effects. Combination of all these eight elements will supply a general logic to logical thinking. The component Ã¢â¬Å" Purpose Ã¢â¬ suggests that all concluding involves a intent or end. It is of import to clear up the conflicting intents as each single develops different intents in concluding. It is besides of import to find the best intent and non-critical thought motivations that one has. Ã¢â¬Å" Question at Issue Ã¢â¬ refers to the effort of concluding an issue by inquiring some inquiries. Therefore, issue ever raise a inquiry. The inquiries formulated will be answered or solved by one Ã¢â¬Ës concluding procedure. However, before replying the inquiries, one should clearly place the significance of each inquiry. If possible, one should besides find the inquiries as holding one correct reply, or involves sentiments. Ã¢â¬Å" Point of View Ã¢â¬ includes the position sing an issue and how people are influenced by their ain point of position when logical thinking. Persons should place their ain point of position, every bit good as others in order to find the strengths a nd failings Ã¢â¬Å" Premises Ã¢â¬ are unexpressed grounds which predict decisions. It is suggested that people need to take things for granted in their logical thinking procedure to do several premises. However, one should clear up the premises made and so merely find its justification. Ã¢â¬Å" Information Ã¢â¬ requires important groundss that showed logical thinking is acceptable. It is highly of import to garner informations and facts in happening supports and cogent evidence for separating sentiments and grounds. In add-on, it is besides necessary to see the lucidity, truth, and relevancy of the groundss. Experience may besides lend to concluding procedure. Ã¢â¬Å" Concepts Ã¢â¬ suggest that the usage of constructs and thoughts including rules, Torahs, theories, definitions, and theoretical accounts are needfully required in concluding procedure. Besides, it is besides important to see alternate constructs before make up one's minding on which to utilize, and to place the lucidity of the constructs. Ã¢â¬Å" Interpretation and illation Ã¢â¬ involves pulling decisions and happening solution through concluding procedure by the receiving system. The decisions one concept is dependent on the illations that one has made. It is of import to deduce harmonizing to the evidentiary supports and the consistence of illations should be taken into history every bit good. Ã¢â¬Å" Deductions and Consequences Ã¢â¬ suggest the significance for sing the deductions and effects of concluding. Deductions are decisions drawn from the transmitter and formed by concluding. Therefore, it is of import that one should see both positive and negative deductions and all possible effects ( Paul, 1992 ; Santa Rosa Junior College, 2010 ) . Literature Review Gender and Critical Thinking Skills Type of Games and Critical Thinking Skills Duration of games played per twenty-four hours and Critical Thinking Skills Research Hypothesiss Three void hypotheses are formulated: H01 = There is no important difference between gender and critical thought accomplishments among adolescence H02 = There is no important difference between types of games and critical thought accomplishments among adolescence H03 = There is no relationship between the continuance of games played per twenty-four hours and critical thought accomplishments among adolescence Research Aims To find the differences in critical thought between males and females. To find the differences between critical thought and several types of games played. To look into the relationship between critical thought and the continuance of games played per twenty-four hours. Research Questions Is there a important difference in critical thought between males and females? Is there a important difference between critical thought and several types of games played? Is there a relationship between critical thought and the continuance of games played per twenty-four hours? Operational Definition Critical Thinking Tonss obtained from The Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Using Everyday Situations ( HCTAES ) Methodology Sampling A sample size of 0.38 % adolescence from around 100000 populations of secondary school in Kuala Lumpur will be selected utilizing the multistage bunch trying method. Therefore, a sample of 400 participants with approximative 240 males and 160 females at the ages runing from 13 to 17 old ages old will be indiscriminately selected ( Krejcie & A ; Morgan, as cited in Key, 1997 ; Bahagian Perancangan Dan Penyelidikan Dasar Pendidikan, 2007 ) . First of all, six territories will be indiscriminately selected from 20 territories in Kuala Lumpur. The selected six territories will so be divided into school blocks, which there are 20 blocks in each territory. Four blocks will be indiscriminately selected. Following, split the blocks schools with 40 schools in each block and two schools will be selected indiscriminately. In each school, eight respondents will be indiscriminately selected to take part in this study research. The principle of taking multistage bunch sampling is that it provides a generalisation of the study findings of the population. In add-on, this trying method besides minimizes the possibility of prejudices in response of the study. Data Collection Procedure The information will be collected utilizing face-to-face interview with the participants. The research workers will do assignments with the participants selected in order to run into them in individual. Since there are two questionnaires ( i.e. , Computer Games Questionnaire and The Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Using Everyday Situations ) needed to administer in this research, therefore the same group of participants selected will be expected to make full up the two questionnaires, one after the other, on the same twenty-four hours of interview. The research workers will be in the same room with the participants to do certain that they fill up both questionnaires, with the Computer Games Questionnaire foremost. After the interview, all the questionnaires will be collected for farther informations analysis. Instruments Demographic Form There are 10 inquiries formulated in the demographic signifier. The participants will be asked of the types of games that they preferred or engaged in playing most frequently. For case, scheme games, arcade games, card and board games, word and mystifier games, hiting games and role-playing games. Based on the different class of games, six inquiries are formed with graduated tables runing from ne'er, rarely, sometimes, often, and frequently. Furthermore, the continuance of clip that they engaged in the gambling activities per twenty-four hours will besides be asked in the questionnaire. Few options of the clip continuance are categorized as less than 2 hours, 3 to 6 hours, 7 to 10 hours, 11 to 13 hours and more than 14 hours per twenty-four hours. Other than that, the last inquiry requires the participant to analyse themselves as which type of computing machine game participant, with options such as non-computer, novice, occasional, frequent, and expert computing machine game partici pant. The Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Using Everyday Situations ( HCTAES ) This instrument was late developed by Halpern and is composed of two response formats such as unfastened and closed ( Nieto & A ; Saiz, 2008 ) . Halpern made an effort to unite both the multiple-choice and open-ended inquiries into a individual measuring tool due to restrictions of each response format. The trial is considered less structured but it presents more life-like state of affairss by utilizing inquiries that are set in reliable and credible contexts to mensurate critical thought accomplishments. HCTAES is a measuring tool which comprises of 25 scenario-based inquiries on day-to-day life, with each inquiries dwelling of both open-ended and multiple-choice responses necessitating judgement and rating. There are a sum of 50 inquiries formulated in the trial. In the open-ended responses, it is aimed to prove the strategic usage of believing accomplishments and the ability to self-construct possible solutions without any intimations given, or known as measurings of Ã¢â¬Å" free callback. Ã¢â¬ For illustration, there will be a Ã¢â¬ËYes Ã¢â¬Ë or Ã¢â¬ËNo Ã¢â¬Ë inquiry and a short reply inquiry given in this subdivision. On the other manus, the multiple-choice responses measures Ã¢â¬Å" acknowledgment memory Ã¢â¬ whereby seeking and choice of appropriate cognition and accomplishments from participants Ã¢â¬Ë memory are indispensable in assisting them to happen an appropriate reply from a list of options given. Other than supplying inquiries with several options to take from, Likert graduated table or 7-point graduated table is every bit good formulated in this subdivision. In add-on, the open-ended responses will be the first portion in each inquiry and participants are besides required to react to it foremost before they get to reply the multiple-choice portion. The intent of the inquiries formulated in this trial is to mensurate five types of critical thought accomplishments including verbal logical thinking ( i.e. , acknowledgment of the usage of permeant and deceptive linguistic communication ) , argument analysis ( i.e. , acknowledgment of grounds and decisions in statements ) , hypothesis testing ( i.e. , understand the sample size, generalisations ) , utilizing likeliness and uncertainness ( i.e. , using relevant rules of chance, base rates ) , every bit good as determination devising and job resolution ( i.e. , placing the job end, bring forthing and selecting solutions among options ) . Several groundss of the convergent and divergent cogency of the trial had been reported in surveies with assorted samples of American pupils. However, the dependability coefficients ( Cronbach Ã¢â¬Ës IÃ ± ) had reported between 0.81 and 0.82 for survey with different groups of pupils ( Ku, 2009 ; Ku & A ; Ho, 2010 ) . Datas Analysis The void hypothesis in this research will be tested with one-way ANOVA and independent t-test on gender differences and types of games with critical thought in adolescence. In order to prove if there is any difference between types of games and critical thought, one-way ANOVA with alpha-level 0.05 will be used. The ground is that there are more than two classs of games that are being surveyed, such as scheme, arcade, word and mystifier, role-playing, card and board, and hiting games. Besides that, t-test is chosen to analyse the differences between genders in critical thought. The independent t-test with alpha-level 0.05 will be used since there is no matching required in this research. In add-on, it will be a two-tailed t-test as the relationships between genders are non-directional. Last, a correlational trial will be used to analyse the relationship between continuance of games played per twenty-four hours and critical thought. The consequences will demo that there is a relationsh ip between the two variables. Furthermore, big sum of informations can be collected in a comparatively short period of clip. Restriction and suggested hereafter research Mentions:AddictionBlog.org. ( 2010 ) . Top 10 Negative Effectss of Video Games on Children.Retrieved April 26, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //addictionblog.org/top-10/top-10-negative-effects-of-video-games-on-children/Bahagian Perancangan Dan Penyelidikan Dasar Pendidikan. ( 2007 ) . Registration and categories of secondary schools by province, type of school and sex ( Jadual 7 ) . Malaya: Ministry of Education. Retrieved April 24, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //apps.moe.gov.my/emis/emis2/emisportal2/mainpage.php? module=Makl umat & A ; kategori=47 & A ; id=188 & A ; papar=1Bellis, M. ( 2010 ) . Benjamin Bloom Ã¢â¬â Critical Thinking Skills: Benjamin BloomModel of Critical Thinking. Retrieved April 17, 2010, fromhypertext transfer protocol: //inventors.about.com/library/lessons/bl_benjamin_bloom.htmBig Dog & A ; Little Dog Ã¢â¬Ës Performance Juxtaposition. ( 2009 ) . Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy ofLearning Spheres: The Three Types of Learning. Retrieved April 17, 2010,from hypertext transfer protocol: //nwlink.com/~Donclark/hrd/bloom.htmlBusinessBalls.com. ( 2009 ) . Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy Ã¢â¬â Learning Domains. Retrieved April17, 2010, fromhypertext transfer protocol: //www.businessballs.com/bloomstaxonomyoflearningdomains.htmCarney, S. ( 2008 ) . Violent Video Games and Teens: Negative Effectss on the Brain,Development, and Behavior. Retrieved April 26, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //at-risk-youth-support.suite101.com/article.cfm/teens_and_violent_video_gamesChen, C. Y. , & A ; Chang, S. L. ( 2008 ) . An Exploration of the Tendency to Online Game Addiction Due to User Ã¢â¬Ës Liking of Design Features. Asiatic Journal of Health and Information Sciences, 3 ( 1-4 ) , 38-51.Cournoyer, B. R. ( 2008 ) . The Social Work Skills Workbook ( 5th ed. ) . Belmont, CA:Thomson Brooks/Cole.Cultrona, R. L. ( 2010 ) . Negative Effectss of Video Gaming. Retrieved April 26, 2010,from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ehow.com/about_5370023_negative-effects-video-gaming.htmlDaniel, M-F. , Splitter, L. , Slade, C. , Lafortune, L. , Pallascio, R. , & A ; Mongeau, P. ( 2004 ) . Article: Dialogical critical thought: elements of definitions emerging in the analysis of transcripts from students aged 10 to 12 old ages. Australian Journal of Education. Retrieved May 16, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-124791659.html Eow, Y. L. , Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud, & A ; Roselan Baki. ( 2009 ) . Form One Students Ã¢â¬Ë Battle with Computer Games and Its Consequence on Their Academic Achievement in a Malayan Secondary School. Computers & A ; Education, 53 ( 4 ) , 1082-1091. Retrieved April 10, 2010, from Science Direct database. Facione, P. A. ( 2010 ) . Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press. Facione, P. A. ( 1990 ) . The California Critical Thinking Skills Test: College Level Technical Report # 1 Ã¢â¬â Experimental Validation and Content Validity. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press. Fisher, A. ( 2001 ) . Critical Thinking: An Introduction. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Foundation for Critical Thinking. ( 2009 ) . Critical Thinking Development: A Phase Theory. Retrieved April 19, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.criticalthinking.org/articles/ct-development-a-stage-theory.cfm Foundation for Critical Thinking. ( 2009 ) . Specifying Critical Thinking. Retrieved April 11, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.criticalthinking.org/aboutct/define_critical_thinking.cfmGakushuu. ( 2010 ) . Reviewing Ã¢â¬Å" Critical Thinking Ã¢â¬ . Retrieved April 19, 2010, fromhypertext transfer protocol: //www.gakushuu.org/index.php/academic-competencies/45-critical- thinking-competency/57-critical-critique.html Gentile, D. A. , Lynch, P. J. , Linder, J. R. , & A ; Walsh, D. A. ( 2004 ) . The Effects of Violent Video Game Habits on Adolescent Hostility, Aggressive Behaviors, and School Performance. Journal of Adolescence, 27 ( 1 ) , 5-22.Hammond, G. ( 2007 ) . Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy. Retrieved April 18, 2010, fromhypertext transfer protocol: //xnet.rrc.mb.ca/glenh/newpage83.htmHarmon, D. A. , & A ; Jones, T. S. ( 2005 ) . Elementary Education: A Reference Handbook. United States of America: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Hasiah Mohamed Omar, Nora Yanti Che Jan & A ; Nik Marsyahariani Nik Daud. ( 2010 ) . Exposure of Computer Games among IHL Students in Malaya: Case Survey of Computer Science Students in UiTM Terengganu. Computer and Information Science, 3 ( 1 ) , 1-2.Huitt, B. ( 2009 ) . Bloom et Al. Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain. Retrieved April17, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cogsys/bloom.htmlInstructional Design Knowledge Base. ( n.d. ) . Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy of CognitiveDomain. Retrieved April 17, 2010, fromhypertext transfer protocol: //classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/Resources2/bloomstax.htmIntel Education. ( n.d. ) . Bloom Ã¢â¬Ës Taxonomy: A New Look at an Old Standby. Retrieved May 24, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www97.intel.com/au/ProjectDesign/ThinkingSkills/ThinkingFrameworks/Bloom_Taxonomy.htm Jaimes, J. ( 2005 ) . Critical thought, brooding authorship: acquisition? Retrieved May 24, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3325/is_1_9/ai_n29182842/ Key, J. P. ( 1997 ) . Module R7 Ã¢â¬â Sampling. Retrieved April 24, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.okstate.edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/newpage15.h thulium Ku, K. Y. L. ( 2009 ) . Measuring pupils Ã¢â¬Ë critical thought public presentation: Goad for measurings utilizing multi-response format. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4 ( 1 ) , 70-76. Ku, K. Y. L. & A ; Ho, I. T. ( 2010 ) . Dispositional factors foretelling Chinese pupils Ã¢â¬Ë critical thought public presentation. Personality and Individual Differences, 48 ( 1 ) , 54-58. Lee, A. ( 2009 ) . Deadly Computer Games. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.chicktimes.com/articles/deadly-computer-game.html Murchu , D. O. , & A ; Muirhead, B. ( 2005 ) . Insights into Promoting Critical Thinking inOnline Classes. Retrieved May 16, 2010, fromhypertext transfer protocol: //itdl.org/journal/jun_05/article01.htmNieto, A. M. & A ; Saiz, C. ( 2008 ) . Evaluation of Halpern Ã¢â¬Ës Ã¢â¬Å" Structural Component Ã¢â¬ for Bettering Critical Thinking. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11 ( 1 ) , 266-274. Paul, R. ( 1992 ) . Critical thought: What every individual needs to last in a quickly altering universe. Sonoma, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.A Renaud, R. D. , & A ; Murray, H. G. ( 2008 ) . A Comparison of a Subject-Specific and A General Measure of Critical Thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 3 ( 2 ) , 85-93. Retrieved April 11, 2010, from Science Direct database. Roselan Baki, Eow, Y. L. , Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & A ; Mohd. Sahandri Gani Hamzah. ( 2008 ) . The Position of Six Malayan Students on Playing Video Games: Beneficial or Detrimental? US-China Education Review, 5 ( 11 ) , 1-10.Santa Rosa Junior College. ( 2010 ) . Elementss of Thought. Retrieved May 18, 2010,fromhypertext transfer protocol: //www.yorku.ca/rkenedy/critical_skills/student/critical_skills_web/critical_thinking_santarosa/link3.htm # coordinate systemSchafersman, S. D. ( 1991 ) . An Introduction to Critical Thinking. Retrieved April12, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.freeinquiry.com/critical-thinking.htmlSmed, J. , & A ; Hakonen, H. ( 2003 ) . Towards a Definition of a Computer Game. Turku Centre for Computer Science, 553, 3-6.The Critical Thinking Co Staff. ( 2005 ) . What is Critical Thinking? Ã¢â¬â CriticalThinking Definition. Retrieved May 24, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.criticalthinking.com/company/articles/critical-thinking-definition.jspWorldwide Centre for Organisational Development. ( 2008 ) . Critical Thinking: Phasesin Developing Critical Thinking. Retrieved April 19, 2010, fromhypertext transfer protocol: //talentspotters.org/downloads/CRITICAL-THINKING.pdf
Thursday, January 2, 2020
EXERCISE: HELPING OR HINDERING? Throughout the years studies have shown that exercise habits have changed; conveniently, so has the overall health of humanity which may lead to one questioning if there is a direct correlation between these two instances. It is easy to assume that this is true due to the simple analysis that if one were to stop being physically active then he or she would be Ã¢â¬Å"out of shape.Ã¢â¬ Is there enough evidence to show that exercise can harm the body, or that someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s schedule could suffer from taking time out of his or her day to exercise? Like most activities, being physically active has its pros and cons. When someone thinks of being physically fit, hard work, sweat, and determination come to mind. ObviouslyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The benefits are dose-dependent, meaning that greater improvements are seen with higher levels of exercise, and appear to be similar to those achieved with antidepressant medication.Ã¢â¬ (Godbey, Geoffrey, Robinson, 2009). Before the re was a time of Ã¢â¬Å"medication heals allÃ¢â¬ , there stood a time where physical activity may not have even been an option. The majority of the time, excess stress that burdens a person usually finds a way back to starting with his or her own inequities; so the problem could ultimately be solved without the help of medications. Another benefit that exercise could take the place of medicine in is supported by a study that has shown physical activity could also extend the lifespan of an individual. According to Beth Baker, Ã¢â¬Å"After accounting for other life-expectancy factors, researchers found that people who got the CDC-recommended 2.5 hours of moderate exercise per week, or just 1.25 hours of vigorous exercise per week, lived an average of 3.4 years longer than non-exercisers.Ã¢â¬ (2011, p. 805-828) The Ã¢â¬Å"fountain of youthÃ¢â¬ could be managing a schedule, leaving enough time to go for a run or knock out a set of push ups instead of binge watching Netflix shows. Little acts such as these exercises prove to be strenuous, but weighing the options could sometimes prove more important than a person tends to think. By exercising for short amounts per week, the subjects in theShow MoreRelatedI Want to Be a Physical Therapist1409 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbefore. Patients call it physical terror becau se in physical therapy you use different exercises that usually will make the area that they are doing the therapy for hurt in order to help it recover to its full range of motion. 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These movements are the best reflections of gymnastics, weightlifting, running, rowing etc. (what is CrossFit, 2016). CrossFit now has become a diet and exercise program, which incorporates trainers, practitioners, and the gym franchise. To better understandRead MoreThe European Union Should Not Let Turkey Join the EU: An Analysis619 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthat are necessary if they want to join the EU. They have for instance abolished the death penalty and introduced several measures to help women and Kurds. It is now possible to broadcast in Kurdish, which was impossible for a very long time (Pros and cons; allowing Turkey to join the EU, 2009). Turkey is definitely responding to EUÃ¢â¬â¢s demands, but the main question is whether Turkey is an added value to the EU or not. The criteria of Copenhagen should be applied to a European country and Turkey
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Business Statistics SCMA 1000 Winter 2015 Section 2 Assignment 1 Due Tuesday February 25, 2015 Sampling exercise The purpose of this exercise is to convey some basic concepts in regards to sampling while at the same time deriving sampling distributions empirically. Deriving sampling distributions empirically works best when there are a large number of samples. The idea here is that each student in the class will create 20 samples for two populations, using two different sampling procedures, for a total of 80 samples. These samples will be combined into common datasets which will be used in class (and made available to all students in the class. The four sampling contexts will be: 1. Discrete numerical population, samplingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Sampling context 1: Discrete numerical population, sampling without replacement The population The population is comprised of 10 elements, with values from 1 to 10. It a discrete variable in that the variable can only take on integer values. Also it is a uniform distribution in that each value appears once in the population. Below is a graphical representation of the population: Sampling procedure The kinds of samples we are going to generate are called simple random samples but sampling will be done without replacement. Sampling without replacement means that an element is no longer available for selection once it has been selected. In other words, the element is not replaced once selected. The sample size will be 5. Cut out 10 cardboard squares measuring 3 cm x 3 cm Number the squares from 1 through 10. Place cardboard squares in a container. Randomly select 5 squares without replacing the squares (You should have 5 squares in front of you.) Record the numbers on the 5 squares (these are called your observed values) in columns D to H of the spreadsheet. Do this 20 times. For these 20 rows (samples), Ã¢â¬ËDNWITHOUTÃ¢â¬â¢ should appear in Column C. Sampling context 2: Discrete numerical population, sampling with replacement The population Same population as above. Sampling procedure The kinds of samples we are going to generate are called simple random samples butShow MoreRelatedBusiness Analysis : Business And Business2361 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesEach business has products or services they want to sell to consumers, whether this is the man on the street or a multi-nation organisation, the difference in which person they targets will depend on what the product or service the organisation is offering Business to Business Business to business markets is, for example where to company engage in a transaction of a product or service, this could be a waste management company removing waste from a warehouse that produce a vast amount of waste. 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Many might say the main idea is that a corporation must go further than carrying out their basic function of purely making profits. A corporation must create wealth in ways that avoid under minding society, and instead enrich the society it operates in. The term Ã¢â¬Å"corporate social responsibilityÃ¢â¬ has been deÃ¯ ¬ ned in numerous ways; from the constricted economic perception of increasing stockholder wealth (FriedmanRead MoreBusiness614 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Analysis of Leadership Case Problem A Ã¢â¬â The Global Insurance Tag Team Identify the teamwork problems that Calvin might be facing Calvin is the director of disaster insurance at a global insurance company and he has his own large department which located in New York. He is also the team leader of ten different representatives around the world. Each team member is responsible for encouraging the sales representatives in offices around the globe to sell disaster insurance. (Dubrin, 2010). 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